Sentence fragment

A sentence fragment is a group of words that lacks a complete sentence structure and does not express a complete thought; it needs to be completed with a subject and a verb; that is, a complete idea.

Sentence fragments can occur when a writer does not provide enough information to complete a thought or when they use dependent clauses without attaching them to an independent clause. They can also occur when a writer mistakenly ends a sentence, making it incomplete.

To avoid sentence fragments, one should ensure that every group of words expresses a complete thought, including a subject and a verb. One can also combine sentence fragments with independent clauses or add necessary information to make a complete sentence. Additionally, one should avoid ending a sentence with a conjunction or a preposition, as this can create a sentence fragment. Proofreading and revising one’s writing can also help catch and correct sentence fragments.


Grammar Written coherence


Parallelism in writing refers to using grammatical structures that are similar in form or pattern. It can be a useful stylistic tool to create a sense of balance and rhythm in your writing. However, in academic writing, overusing parallelism can make your text monotonous and predictable and, therefore, should be avoided.

To avoid excessive parallelism, try to vary the structure of your sentences and use a mix of different grammatical constructions. You can achieve this by incorporating different types of clauses (dependent and independent) and using various verb forms and sentence lengths.

Additionally, it is essential to pay attention to the content of your writing to avoid unintentional repetition. One way to do this is to make sure that each sentence has a special message and contributes to the overall argument of your text. Varying your vocabulary and sentence structure can also help you avoid repeatedly using the exact words or phrases.

Finally, consider having someone else read your text and provide feedback on its overall flow and structure. A fresh perspective can help you identify areas where your writing may be too parallel and suggest ways to improve it.



Hypernyms and hyponyms

Hypernyms and hyponyms are two types of related words that are commonly used in linguistic and semantic analysis.

A hypernym is a word that represents a category or a superordinate term that is more general than the words it encompasses. For example, “animal” is a hypernym of “dog,” “cat,” “horse,” and “bird” because it represents a broader category that includes all of these animals. Similarly, “vehicle” is a hypernym of “car,” “bus,” “train,” and “plane” because it encompasses all of these modes of transportation.

On the other hand, a hyponym is a word that represents a specific example or a subordinate term that is more specific than the words it includes. For instance, “dog” is a hyponym of “animal” because it is a specific example of an animal. Likewise, “car” is a hyponym of “vehicle” because it is a specific type of vehicle.

Hypernyms and hyponyms are used to create a hierarchy of words that helps to organize and understand the relationships between different terms in a language. They are instrumental in natural language processing and information retrieval systems, which can be used to group related concepts and improve search results. Additionally, hypernyms and hyponyms can be used in education to teach vocabulary and help students understand the relationships between words.


When writing an academic text, avoid hypernyms that are too general or vague: “people,” “ideas,” etc.


Hyponymy and hypernymy – Wikipedia



Demonstratives point to or indicate specific people, places, or things in speech or writing. They include words such as “this,” “that,” “these,” and “those.”

The usage of demonstratives depends on the context of the communication. Generally, they help the listener or reader understand the person, place, or thing the speaker or writer refers to. Here are some common ways that demonstratives are used:

  1. Pointing to something nearby: When the speaker or writer refers to something close by, they might use “this” or “these.” For example, “This pen is mine” or “These cookies are delicious.”
  2. Pointing to something far away: When the speaker or writer refers to something far away, they might use “that” or “those.” For example, “That building over there is where I used to work” or “Those mountains in the distance are breathtaking.”
  3. Differentiating between two or more items: When the speaker or writer wants to distinguish between two or more items, they might use “this” and “these” to refer to the item(s) that are closer, and “that” and “those” to refer to the item(s) that are farther away. For example, “This shirt is blue, but that one is green.”
  4. Referring to something previously mentioned: When the speaker or writer wants to refer to something that has already been mentioned, they might use “this” or “these” to refer to the most recent item and “that” or “those” to refer to items mentioned earlier. For example, “I love all kinds of fruit, but these apples are my favorite. Those oranges over there look good too.”


When writing an academic text, it’s usually best to avoid demonstrative adjectives and demonstrative pronouns as it forces the writer to create more descriptive and more concise ideas. If you have demonstratives in your text, try to reword your text by replacing them with synonyms, hypernyms and hyponyms, meronyms, and direct repetition.

Grammar Verbs

Linking verbs (copulas)

Linking verbs, also known as copulas, connect the subject of a sentence to a complement (either a noun, pronoun, or adjective) that provides additional information about the subject.

Linking verbs do not show an action but rather a state of being or a condition of the subject. Common examples of linking verbs include “be,” “appear,” “seem,” “become,” “remain,” “feel,” “sound,” and “look.”

For example, in the sentence “The flowers are beautiful,” “are” is the linking verb that connects the subject “flowers” to the complement “beautiful.” Another example is the sentence “He seemed tired,” where “seemed” is the linking verb that connects the subject “he” to the complement “tired.”

When to avoid a linking verb

When writing an academic text, avoid linking verbs in the main clauses of a thesis statement and topic sentences that express the main idea of a body paragraph.